If you familiar to Hindi then check सीरवी (क्षत्रिय) समाज खारड़िया का इतिहास for read History of Seervi Samaj.
Concerns for humanity’s present and future are constant. The light of human consciousness constantly shines on the present. The support of the present allows one to keep thinking about the future. However, when one has to gaze backward, they must seek safety in the “history” shelter. Only in the mirror of history can one see the rise and fall of the past. History’s core is the accurate account of the past. Future planning is accomplished by building the present on top of the remains of the past.
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Every time someone looks back on the past, they learn about the experiences and mysteries of life. The foundation of truth and grandeur built by our forebears is like a society-shaped tree whose wealth and tranquility we can feel firsthand. It is this foundation that we are living now. Our current can be somewhat enhanced if we spend three-quarters of our attention on the past rather than the present and future. It might also be claimed that their future has grown divine as our present improves. Humans can only see into the past, or learn about the past, through the written accounts of history. History is a mirror that, by educating us about the past, directs us toward improving the present and illuminating the way forward.
Every person today thinks about whether their family is from the upper class, and this is also accurate. The texts reveal that the caste system did not exist in its original form. Since mankind descended from Brahma (the Divine), all people were referred to as Brahmins. The descendants of the seven sages were called Brahmins before Manu and Soma because of their connection to Brahma’s creation. The famed dynasties of the Solar and Lunar clans eventually descended from the descendants of Manu and Soma, who were known as Kshatriyas. Then, after a lengthy period of time, the ancient teacher Manu began to build the Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras as a varna system based on their deeds. Kshatriya refers to the noble or righteous group of people, also known as the Aryans, and is derived from the Kshatriya regal dynasty. These honorable Aryan ethnic groups are split into four varnas in India.
“Yatpurush Vyadghu Katidh Vyakalpayan |
Mukham Kimasya Ko Bahu Kaburu Pada Uchyate ||
brahmanodasya mukhamasid bahu rajanya kritah |
Uru Tadsya Madhsya Padbhyan Shudrojjayat: ||
(Yajurveda Vajsenyi Samhita Ksh, Sha, I, De, M, p, 12)
Creation of Human Civilization
Prajapati (Brahma) envisioned the creation of human civilization as a whole. What variety of imaginations were created for the being? What’s the hymn’s face like? The thighs, feet, and arms are who? The answer claims that the feet are Shudra, the thighs are Vaishya, the arms are Kshatriya, and the face is Brahmin.
The Brahmins are seen as representing the face of human society. Due to the fact that they influence society by their discourse (knowledge), they are referred to as the Brahmins. The Kshatriyas stand in for the weapons, representing the power and defense of society. The thighs stand in for the Vaishyas, who supply resources and nutrition to keep society alive. And the Shudras are known for their service to society, much as the feet support the entire body.
We are all direct offspring of Brahma, and because of our good and lofty thinking, humans are regarded as belonging to a superior class. The karma system, as opposed to birth rites, serves as the foundation for the caste system. We want to learn more about the history of the (Kshatriya) Seervi community Khariya and are working to do so with the help of the aforementioned concepts.
Seervi (Kshatriya) community branched off from the Rajput caste
Our Seervi (Kshatriya) community Khariya is a Kshatriya agricultural caste. The society branched off from the Rajput caste around 703 years ago (according to the publication date of the book, which is mentioned as 16-5-2006). The Seervi (Khariya) community settled in the Marwar and Godwar regions of Rajasthan. Within the community, we have the commendable history of listening to the narrations by the Raav Bhaats (traditional genealogists). However, there is very little documented evidence available regarding the history of the Seervi (Kshatriya) community Khariya.
According to data gathered from the Jati-Bhaskar, Mardumashumari Rajamarwar 1891 CE, and Rajput genealogy: Hinduism’s norms and restrictions were quite stringent, especially among Kshatriya Rajput’s. These regulations become more stringent after the 18th century to the point that a Kshatriya may be expelled from their caste by the caste chiefs for making even a small mistake. They could be expelled for not abiding by the established regulations as a result of arguments and differences in opinions and ideas. It was not just one reason for someone being expelled from a particular caste but rather the framework of the caste system evolved and divided into various subgroups due to factors such as time, circumstances, natural disasters like floods, droughts, epidemics, external invasions, and the emergence of different religious propagators and sects.
Beginning of Caste system
Indeed, the caste system began to solidify during the time of Maharishi Parashurama. Parashurama’s intention towards the Kshatriyas no longer remained highly beneficial for the welfare of our Bharatvarsha (India). When the Brahmin deity Parashurama became excessively angry, the Kshatriyas, considering it inappropriate to confront the Brahmin deity, changed their names and limited themselves by altering their caste and occupation. It is natural that when disputes arise between two brothers, a third party takes advantage. Slowly, when external enemies found an opportunity, the Turkic, Afghan, and Mughal invasions increased, further impacting the caste system from the 10th century onwards.
The series of events continued to have a more significant impact, especially from the 7th century onwards when Buddhist and Jain preachers began advocating non-violence (ahimsa). Foreigners took advantage of this, and after the reign of Harsha in the vicinity of the 7th century, when the country started dividing into small principalities, the invaders initiated attacks on these principalities. Their invasions were so powerful that they caused immense destruction.
At such a time, a sage from the Vashishtha lineage formed an alliance of Kshatriyas and drove away those foreigners, thereby restoring peace. Even in the accounts of our society’s Raav-Bhaats (genealogists and historians), there are descriptions of certain clans of the Seervi community belonging to the Agnivanshi (descendants of Agni, the fire deity) lineage, such as Parihars, Solankis, Paramars, Chauhans, and others. These four clans were included in this alliance. The mystery of the Agni lineage—Parihars, Solankis, Paramars, and Chauhans—is recognized as Agnivanshi by many historians. The mention of this view was first made by Chand Bardai in his book ‘Prithviraj Raso.’ According to Chand Bardai’s view, when Parashurama annihilated the Kshatriyas twenty-one times, the demons began tormenting the sages. The demons would contaminate the yajnas (sacred rituals) performed by the sages by throwing in bones and flesh, thereby rendering them impure and destroyed.
Vashishtha and other sages held a yajna (holy rite) on the Abu mountain in that circumstance, asking the divine to create a strong lineage to guard them. According to legend, that yajna produced four strong individuals who founded and oversaw the aforementioned four lineages. “Surymall Mishran” by “Muhanaaut Nainsi” and “Vanshbhaskar” by poet Dhanpal both made reference to it. This assertion is supported by the works “Tilak Manjari” by Kavi Abul Fazl, “Aine-e-Akbari” by Abul Fazl, “Hammir Rasau” by Kavi Jodhraj, and “Nav Sahasank Charitra” by Padyagupt. According to supporters of this viewpoint, “Kshatriyatva” (the core qualities of being a Kshatriya) was invoked in the location where the yajna was performed. As a result, the people who are born from it are known as Agnivanshi Kshatriyas.
In the Bhavishya Purana, specifically in Chapter 3, Verse 6, it is mentioned that when Buddhism and Jainism had fully developed, there was an apparent decline of Vedic dharma. Observing this, the poetic Brahmin Kavya-Kunja prepared an agnikunda (fire pit) according to Vedic rituals and performed a yajna (sacred fire ceremony) known as Brahma Homa, chanting Vedic mantras. The four lineages mentioned earlier were initiated and initiated into this ceremony.
According to the aforementioned belief, during that time, certain regions within the border areas of present-day Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh were ruled by the Kshatriya clans of the Parihara, Solanki, Chauhan, and Parmar gotras (lineages). It was in these regions that foreign tribes such as the Huns and others would invade. To defend against these invaders, the Kshatriya clans united and formed an alliance to protect the country. This alliance was similar in nature to how the tenth Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh Ji, gathered and prepared the society’s fervent patriots and warriors to stand against the enemy. Likewise, these four clans considered fire (agni) as their witness and took a vow to protect the nation and its dharma. These clans, namely Parihara, Solanki, Parmar, and Chauhan, were adorned with the title of “Agnivanshi” (descendants of fire) by the rishis (sages). Even today, these four gotras are present within the Seervi (Kshatriya) community of the Kharaadiya lineage.
According to ‘Mardumashumari,’ in the 10th century, numerous foreign invaders descended upon the Indian subcontinent, resembling destructive storms, and plundered its immense wealth. They tore apart the social structure and religious sentiments. These foreign tribes not only ravaged the abundant riches but also profoundly influenced our ancient systems. They settled permanently to expand their own religion and governance. This continual process led to the formation and disintegration of various castes and sub-castes. Alongside this, there emerged individuals who were courageous, valiant, and exceptional in their endeavors. They did not conform to the prevailing societal norms but instead shaped the social order to their own liking. On the other hand, there were saints, philosophers, and great yogis who transformed the societal fabric through their teachings and thoughts, attempting to bring novelty from their perspectives.
In this manner, the Rajput families that emerged from the Kshatriya (warrior) caste continued to maintain their identity through their ancestral lineages for an extended period. As we observe today, people generally use their lineage (gotra) more than their caste to establish their identity. Due to prevailing circumstances, families that originated from the Rajput caste were assimilated into their respective subgroups within the same community. Thus, within all Rajput lineages, there were numerous families that gradually formed a distinct community, including our own society known today as the “Seervi” (Kshatriya) community, also referred to as “Kharadiya.” This distinct identity of our community likely took shape around the 14th century, possibly around the year 1365 of the Vikram Samvat calendar.
In the 12th century, Hindu society was facing double oppression. On one hand, indigenous kings were engaged in internal conflicts, depleting their own power. On the other hand, foreign Muslim invaders, wielding swords in one hand and the banner of religion in the other, were propagating Islam and forcibly converting Hindus. These invaders aimed to expand their empires by coercing Hindus into adopting Islam. Those Hindus who did not accept the Islamic faith were subjected to the imposition of the jizya tax by Muslim rulers or had to engage in warfare.
Attack of Allaudin Khilji
In the year 1368 of the Vikram Samvat calendar, Allaudin Khilji attacked Jalore. The Rajput king, Raja Rao Kanhaṛa Dev of Jalore, fought valiantly alongside the Khāradīya Rajput’s. However, the emperor’s army was significantly larger and better equipped with superior weapons, while the Rajput’s were outnumbered and had limited resources. Nevertheless, they bravely confronted the emperor’s army for a considerable period of time. Due to the prolonged warfare, the supplies within the Jalore fort began to deplete, as all the routes for external supplies were blocked. Therefore, in the decisive battle known as the “Sākā” of Vaisakha, Sudi 5, Vikram Samvat 1368, the Khāradīya Rajput’s (also known as the Seervī Rajput’s) were actively involved. This battle is renowned in history as the “Sākā of Jalore.”
As a matter of fact, the Rajputs fought ferocious conflicts for a very long time. The Greeks had invaded India several centuries before the Common Era, and ever since then, the Shakas, Huns, Kushans, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and other peoples have relentlessly assaulted and conquered the nation. The whole time period, which was marked by incessant hostilities, came to be known as the Muslim reign since each one followed the next. For the Rajputs, defending their country, religion, culture, and even their own lives grew more and more difficult as a result of these horrific invasions and conflicts. Many Rajput dynasties thus misplaced their records of ancestry, customs, and the places they controlled. The specifics of their rule, including when and where they lived and migrated, were jumbled in the maze of lost history.
It is difficult to establish with clarity the origins and historical records of particular castes. The history and development of castes can, however, be understood via the use of other sources, including folklore and oral traditions as well as ancient literature, inscriptions, sculptures, and mythology. Raj-Bhats also keep historical records. The four varnas (social groups) of the Vedic era—Brahmins (priests and scholars), Kshatriyas (warriors and rulers), Vaishyas (merchants and farmers), and Shudras (laborers and servants)—can be extrapolated as the origins of all castes and sub-castes.
According to ‘Rajput Vanshavali Page 4’, if an exceptionally great individual is born in a lineage, their descendants adopt their lineage as their own. For example, the original lineage of the Pratiharas is Kashyap, but in this lineage, Laxman became an extremely great person who was adorned with the title of Pratihara by Lord Rama. As a result, Laxman and his descendants started being called Pratihar, Parihar. Laxman had two sons, Angad and Chandraketu, and the lineage of the Paramaras (Panwars) is derived from the Vasishta Gotra. The implication here is that all the Paramaras, Panwars, Kshatriyas are the descendants of the great sage Vasishta, and the Chauhan’s are the descendants of the sage Vats, Solanki’s (Chalukya Maharaja Udayan) are the descendants of Shri Ram’s younger brother Laxman. Similarly, the Rathore’s are the descendants of Lord Ram’s son Kush and the Gehlot’s are the descendants of Guhil, who is the son of Lav.
The study of available ancient history reveals that our society, the Kshatriya Vanshi Seervi (Kharadiya) caste, is indeed descended from the Aryans. The origin of the Seervi (Kharadiya) caste is also from the Vedic Kshatriya Rajput caste. Our Seervi Kharadiya caste has six main gotras, 18 sub-gotras, and 25 nakshatras. The 18 gotras (khap) are derived from the Kshatriya Rajputs, which provides strong evidence that the available ancient history of the Seervi caste supports the fact that our ancestors were Aryans (Kshatriyas) Rajput’s.
Based on the genealogy of Rajputs and information provided by Rajas, around the 12th century, India witnessed a system of monarchical governance. Different rulers governed various states, each aspiring for importance, which led to conflicts among them. Such princely states also existed in the Gujarat region. The rulers there were engaged in expanding their territories and engaging in power struggles. The history of the Seervi caste reveals that in the Gujarat region, possibly in the Saurashtra area near Junagadh and Rajkot, a fierce battle took place between the king of Girnar and a neighboring king. Thousands of soldiers fought in the battlefield, resulting in casualties and some being taken as captives. Those Kshatriyas who survived abandoned Gujarat and settled in the Jalore kingdom, which was situated on the border of Gujarat. They made it their new home. At that time, Jalore was under the rule of the Chauhan dynasty’s King Kanhardev Sonagara.
As per the historical accounts written by Shri Chandrasinhji Atabad, it is known that the land of the northern part of Gujarat was characterized by rocky and arid terrain, which earned it the name “Kharai-Khabar.” In the southern region of Saurashtra, near the port of Veraval, there was the kingdom of Koyalpur (Diw Island) located in Prabhas-Patan. Its ruler was Anant Rai Sankhla (Panwar), and the region of Kharai-Khabar (where our ancestors ruled) encompassed Junagadh and the surrounding areas of the Girnar kingdom, whose ruler was called Kahavat.
Once there was a conflict and a battle erupted between them. Anant Rai defeated Kahavat in the battle and imprisoned him. However, Kahavat secretly managed to send a message to his nephew, Uka. Uka, along with his soldiers, deceitfully infiltrated Anant Rai Sankhla’s fort. A fierce battle ensued between them, resulting in Anant Rai’s defeat. Thousands of soldiers were engaged in the battlefield, and significant losses were incurred in terms of both lives and resources.
During the Battle of Koyalpur, Anant Rai and his Koyal soldiers were defeated. Anant Rai was captured, and Kahavat, along with a hundred other kings, was released from Anant Rai’s prison. The fallen warriors from both sides were given funeral rites, and Uka presented Anant Rai before Kahavat’s court, wearing shackles and chains. In the court, a ceremonial offering of roasted grams (bhungre) was presented to Anant Rai by Mangal. Previously, Anant Rai had subjected Kahavat and other kings to severe torture. However, Kahavat forgave him and reinstated Anant Rai on the throne.
Expressing gratitude, Anant Rai arranged a grand ceremony where he established a gateway adorned with the Toran (decorative hanging) of the Sankhala family, symbolizing his alliance with Kahavat through the marriage of his sons and daughters to Kahavat’s relatives. Kahavat treated the hundred kings as honored guests and, accompanied by the Koyal Kedi Rajputs, proceeded towards Girnar. Upon reaching Girnar, Uka, the Koyal Kedi chief, imprisoned the Rajputs in the dungeons. Deeply saddened by the sight of the Rajputs’ suffering, Gaharade, a courageous Koyal Rajput woman, confidently declared, “Brothers! The day is not far when you will return to your homes, liberated from my brother’s prison.”
After the defeat in the Battle of Koyalpur, the captured Koyal soldiers were taken by Uka and imprisoned in Koyalpur. Meanwhile, Anant Rai, following his own defeat, arranged marriages between his daughters and the released prisoners, including the kings and Kahavat. However, Anant Rai made no effort to release the Koyal soldiers from captivity. This displeased the imprisoned Koyal Rajput’s, who held resentment towards their king, Anant Rai. It was Gaharande, the grateful sister of Kahavat, who had facilitated the release of the Koyal Rajput’s from imprisonment. Gaharande came with golden coins as part of her dowry and requested her brother, Kahavat, to seek the liberation of the imprisoned Koyal soldiers in Girnar’s dungeons. Sitting in the courtyard, Gaharande expressed her heartfelt sentiments, and Chandrasinhji eloquently articulated her profound thoughts in beautiful words.
mhain kahoon so daan dau, maangoo mukh soon aaj |
koyaliyon nai chhod dau, raakhau mhaaree laaj ||
(I shall say this as my plea, with a humble face today, Release the Koyal soldiers, safeguarding my honor, I pray.)
Upon hearing sister Gaharande’s words, Kahawat is astonished. Later, he realizes that Gaharande had given her word to free the imprisoned brothers. Accepting his sister’s rightful request with dignity, Kahawat, while keeping the best interests of the imprisoned Koyal soldiers, says, “If you all take an oath not to bear arms, I shall release all the prisoners.” Kahawat had released all the soldiers, binding them by their commitment to refrain from carrying weapons. Upon being freed from Kahawat’s captivity, the Koyal Rajput’s deemed it inappropriate to meet Anant Rai and engage in any conflict. All the Rajput’s decided to leave Koyalpur.
Before the first ray of dawn emerged in the year 1335 of the Vikram Samvat calendar, the people, with their families, sorrowfully left Koyalpur behind and embarked on their journey in bullock carts. Traveling towards the north, they halted for a day in the Kutch district and eventually settled in the kingdom of Anhilwad Patan. The region of Kutch is traversed by the Luni River, and the water of the Luni River becomes saline beyond Balotra. This area is also known as the Kharai-Khabar region. It was in this region that these Kshatriyas eventually came to be known as “Kharadiya Rajputs.” At that time, the kingdom of Karn Baghela (Solanki) reigned over Anhilwad Patan, and the Kharai-Khabar region fell under his domain.
The Rajput’s of Koyalpur (Koyalikas), Rajput’s of Rathore, were the first to establish their presence in the Kharai-Khabar region. According to Tha. Bahadur Singh Bidasar’s “Kshatriya Jati ki Suchi” page 82, and “Kharadiya Seerviyon ka Itihas” by Shri Chandrasinhji, the lineage of Seervi Rathore’s traces back to the descendants of Shivpal, the son of Duhadji. They were originally Rajput’s of the Rathore lineage. Over time, they merged with the farming community, and Chandpal and Shivpal, at the age of 14-15, traveled to Gujarat with their uncle Ajaymalji. By residing with the Koyalikas Rajput’s in the Kharai-Khabar region, they also came to be known as Kharadiya Rajput’s. Later, all the Kharadiya Rajput’s moved to Jalore, and Chandpal and Shivpal settled near Bithu Khera. Being landholders and managers of agricultural land according to the traditions of the Sir, they were also called Rathore’s of Kharadiya Seervi.
There was a Sainak King at a place in Ujjain. When the Turks gained control over Ujjain, many Rajput’s left Ujjain and migrated to neighboring kingdoms. The descendants of the Sainak King also went to the Kharai-Khabar region and lived with the Kharadiya Rajput’s. They came to be known as Saincha Kharadiya Rajput’s in reference to the Sainak King. Similarly, there was a King Bodoji at another place in Ujjain. The Turks also attacked King Bodoji, and he played a crucial role in the battle. His eldest son, Khivasimha, left Ujjain and settled in Khinvada. His younger son, Sambhantsimha, joined the army of Mewar. Mewar’s ruler, Ratan Singh, was also killed by Alauddin Khilji, resulting in the downfall of the kingdom. Sambhantsimha left Mewar and arrived in the Kharai-Khabar region, where he started living with the Kharadiya Rajput’s. He too came to be known as a Kharadiya Rajput.
According to “Kshatriya Rajvansh” by Raghunath Singh Kali Pahadi, on the Vikram Samvat 1355, AD 1298, Ullugh Khan and Nasrat Khan, the commanders of Alauddin Khilji, launched a military campaign in Gujarat. They sought permission from Kanhadadev, the ruler of Jalore, to pass through his kingdom, but Kanhadadev refused, stating that they consume forbidden meat and are against Brahmins. Therefore, Kanhadadev did not grant them permission to proceed through his kingdom. This response had an adverse effect, but winning Gujarat was their primary objective. Consequently, the Muslim army advanced into Gujarat and destroyed the Somnath temple. As the Muslim army was retreating, Kanhadadev suddenly attacked them. The Muslim army was defeated and forced to flee the battlefield.
According to the “Jaipur and Swarnagiri Fort’s Cultural History” on page 65, Alauddin Khilji ordered his commander Ullugh Khan to attack Jalore. After being denied passage by Kanhadadev, the imperial forces reached Banaskantha via the routes of Mewar, then moved on to Modasa, Kanam, Charotar, Bawan Khera, and other towns of Gujarat, destroying and ravaging them before reaching Patan. Describing the destruction of Patan and the plight of its temples, Padmanabh states that the temples were demolished and replaced with mosques. The Shivling of Somnath was broken and filled with cow dung. Padmanabh, in his anguish, mentally asks Somnath, “You destroyed Kamadeva, you burnt Lanka in the form of Hanuman, but where is your trishul (trident) now?” This depiction by the poet reflects the internal conflict within the Hindu society at that time. According to him, the linga of Somnath was not broken, but it was the breaking of Hindu identity. The disunity among the rulers provided no direction to Indian society.
Ullugh Khan sent a message to Kanhadadev informing him that he had reached near his Swarnagiri Fort. It is said that on the same day, Kanhadadev had a dream. In the dream, Kanhadadev saw Ganga and Gauri lamenting. He prayed for the liberation of the Somnath Linga and believed that victory would be his. Kanhadadev sounded the war bugle, displaying the readiness and confidence of the Rajput’s. Ullugh Khan surrounded them, and the imperial army arrived at the battlefield. There, they built an artificial fort and made military preparations. Kanhadadev sent his commanders for military intelligence. The commanders displayed their valor, and Ullugh Khan asked Laxman Sepata how many warriors like him were in Kanhadadev’s army. Laxman Sepata stated that their number was 24,000. Kanhadadev witnessed the brutality inflicted on captive women, men, and children in the royal army. He then declared that he would fight and free them all.
When Kanhadadev heard about the plight of the captives in the royal army, he made a pledge that he would not consume food until he liberated the Somnath Linga and the captives. He sent invitations to friendly kings for this war. According to “Kharadiya Seerviyo Ra Itihas” page 42/27, in the Vikram Samvat 1355, all Kharadiya Rajput’s, along with their families and belongings, reached Jalore. Kanhadadev enlisted all these Kharadiya Rajput’s into the Jalore army. As per Padmanabh, four lakh swordsmen Rajput commanders gathered, and their horses were described. The description of their attire and their preparation for the war is vividly portrayed in the contemporary Rajput martial style in “Kanhadadev Prabandh.” The description of their well-decorated horses and their qualities and virtues is beautifully depicted by Padmanabh. The organization of the elephant line was also described during that Jalore battle. The poet provided a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary battle system by describing the elephant army, cavalry, and infantry.
These Rajput warriors visited the shrine of Maa Ashapuri. Taking the command from Maa Ashapuri, the Rajput army descended from Swarnagiri. Under the leadership of Jainta Devra, the Rajput army was organized. The royal army was stationed in Sivana (Gadhsivana). During the night, the Rajputs launched a sudden attack on the royal army. Caught off guard during the night, the royal army could not defend itself and was defeated. The captives were released, and Ulugh Khan fled. The fragments of the sacred linga of Lord Somnath were recovered. The victory cry of Kanhadadev echoed in triumph.
According to Harishankar Rajpurhit’s “Jalor Gad Mein Jauhar” on page 94, he describes how Kanhadadev managed the security of his kingdom. The Maharaja of Jalor had a vast army consisting of numerous elephants, horses, camel handlers, cavalrymen, as well as a substantial infantry force. There was an organized system in place to support them. Kanhadadev’s cavalry consisted of thirty-six different breeds of horses, including Uttara Desh’s Uttira, Kannauj Desh’s Kalutha, Madhya Desh’s Mahuyada, Devgiri’s Devgaradesha, Bahad Desh’s Boria, Ujlagora, Kala, Sinduri, Toraka, Bharija, Ahibana, Pahidhana, Rubara, Bebana, Sambhana, Panipantha, Araha, Sheraha, Kalikantha, Kihada, Karada, Karadagar, Nilda, Malhada, Hariyada, Sherashada, Tunkkana, Kshetr Khurasani, Lahituya, Gangatisa, Hansajadara, Unanbhamar, Udhasya Porana, Chhapal-Charan Vistirna, Shalihotri, Pratishthan Singh, horses with special abilities, horses with extraordinary movements, horses capable of flying in the air, horses that descend rapidly with folded wings, horses that set targets in their minds and move, horses that dwell in the sea, and many other remarkable horses and mares. They were skilled in navigating difficult terrains, crossing rivers, and even traversing the seas.
For these horses, many sorts of harnesses constructed of diverse materials were employed. For several kinds of camels, specifically made saddles embellished with silver and brass work were available. The elephants’ trunks had exquisite designs, and some of them had embellishments made of gold and silver that were saved for special occasions.
The Jalore kingdom’s armory included a vast assortment of remarkable weaponry. There were several bow varieties, varied sword types, diverse shield designs, as well as numerous spear and javelin types, including the crossbow and arrows. Additionally, there were thirty various varieties of battle sticks. Military officials and soldiers wore various outfits and uniforms, as well as armored jackets. Protective clothing for different body parts was made from a variety of textiles, and it might save a soldier’s life even if they were unexpectedly attacked by opponents.
In order to establish his authority over Jalore, Alauddin Khilji sent his army towards Jalore. Anticipating an invasion, Kanha Dev sought military assistance from neighboring kings. In the Vikrami Samvat year 1355, Alauddin had already established his rule over Patan and appointed Kharadar as the Sultan of Patan. Due to the increasing atrocities of the Turks, the Kharadia Rajput’s had made up their minds to leave Gujarat. They were interested in going to Jalore, which was considered a powerful kingdom at that time. The Kharadia Rajputs were concerned about the tyranny of Alauddin in Gujarat. Therefore, they saw an opportunity to assist Jalore. All the Kharadia Rajputs, along with their families and belongings, arrived in Jalore. Kanha Dev recruited these Kharadia Rajputs into the Jalore army. Raja Kanha Dev was pleased and assigned them suitable areas to live with their families.
The Rajput clans who participated in the events were Rathore, Parihar, Panwar (Paramara), Chauhan, Solanki, Lacheta, Gahlot, Sepata, Kag, Bhayal, Padihariya, Devda, Anglecha, Bhumbarada, Choyal, Hambd, Saincha, Sonagara, Sindada, Khandala, Barfa, Mogrecha, Siyal, and Muleva.
The Khariya Rajputs settled in the village of Khabda, located slightly ahead on the northern bank of the Khari River, west of Tilwara. In the same region, on the southern bank of the Khari River, the Jhanwa Sireviyas resided in the village of Jhanwa. The Khariya Rajputs had vowed not to bear weapons while under the captivity of Girnar. They remained committed to their pledge until the Gujarat border, and those who were not held captive joined the Jalore army as soldiers. It can be seen that the condition of not bearing weapons applied until their stay in Gujarat. As a result, this information started spreading among the youth.
Chandrasinh Ji’s spirited couplet:
“Gujarat va chhut gayi, chhut gayi va aanan, Nayau raj, nav rajvi, Kanhardhe Chauhan.”
“Gujarat has been liberated, it has been freed, A new rule, a new reign, by Kanhardhe Chauhan.”
According to “Kharadiya Seerviyon Ra Itihas” (Page 46/28), Kanhardhev sought assistance and received support. The royal army sent by Revanti and Dhanasha was intercepted by the Rajputs near Khandaala. The royal army was defeated. The Kharadiya Rajputs joined the Jalore army and showcased their renowned valor on the battlefield. Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji had conquered Mewar by killing its ruler, Ratan Singh. Rani Padmavati of Mewar performed “jauhar” along with her seven hundred companions. The Rajput’s of Mewar, along with Sawant Singh Pavar of Ujjain, who had served as a capable commander in Rana Ratan Singh’s army, secretly formed their army and made preparations from Sultan Khizr Khan’s camp. Some years ago, Sawant Singh Pavar had resided with the Kharadiya Rajput’s in Kharai Khambad. The nobles of Mewar called Sawant Singh Pavar back to Mewar. Sawant Singh Pavar was appointed as the commander of a military detachment and was sent to Jalore. Sawant Singh and his soldiers displayed exceptional bravery in battle. Kanhardhev’s warriors fought with great enthusiasm. Ultimately, the Muslim army was defeated and forced to retreat, resulting in Kanhardhev’s victory.
Kanhardhev expressed his gratitude, giving credit for the victory to his supporters. He honored the soldiers from Revanti and Dhanasha and extended heartfelt thanks to the brave warriors of Mewar. Recognizing the skill displayed by Sawant Singh, the commander of the military detachment, Kanhardhev arranged for the marriage of his granddaughter from the Sondagara clan with Sawant Singh. Sawant Singh established a settlement called Sambatpura in Jalore. Impressed by the love and sacrifice of the Kharadiya Rajput’s for their country, King Kanhardhev showed them great respect and vowed to prioritize their development. He urged them to continue their support in the country and to demand any facilities they needed in his kingdom. He assured them that all possible conveniences would be provided to them from his side.
There are differing opinions among historians regarding this. According to Munshi Deviprasad’s “Marwar Mardumashumari Report,” the Kharadiya Rajputs were residents of Jalore. Our bards and genealogists also agree with these views. For example, based on the history of the Lacheta (Parihar) lineage in the Kharadiya Seervi community, we learn that around the 8th century Vikram Samvat, the ancestors of the Parihars, who were known as Hindoji Parihars and were the father of Lastaji, settled in the village of Leta near Jabalipur (Jalore) and resided there. Similarly, according to the accounts of the Bhat community, around the same time, 24 forts were established by the ancestors of the Seervi community in the Kharai region. (The details of these forts are mentioned in this book.) It was due to their residence in the Kharai region that they came to be known as Kharadiya Rajput’s. It was these Kharadiya Rajput’s who ruled over Jalore, and Chauhan dynasty King Kanhardhev was among them.
The Birth of Seervi Samaj
According to page 44/29 of “Kharadiya Seerviyo Rau Itihas,” the chief of the Kharadiya Rajput’s, Jangjande Gahlot, expressed the desires of his comrades before King Kanhardhev. He said, “Your Majesty, we wish to engage in agriculture (farming). Please provide us with the aforementioned agricultural land.” Kanhardhev, pleased with their request, immediately issued orders to the landlords of Jalore who were present in the assembly. The Kharadiya Rajput’s, who reside in the said region to this day, were granted agricultural land by the landlords. The land would belong to the landlords, including the soil, water, and fertilizers. The activities of plowing, sowing, nurturing, harvesting, and threshing would be the responsibility of the hardworking farmers. Half of the yield from the Rabi crop and the ninth part of the yield from the Kharif crop (summer cultivation) would belong to the landlords.
The landlords should not impose any restrictions on the Kharadiya Rajput’s. All the landlords accepted the king’s order willingly and happily. Kanhardhev stated in the assembly, “Those who engage in Seer Ri Kheti (farming) in our Jalore are called Seervis.” Kanhardhev said to the Kharadiya Rajput’s, “From today onwards, you will be called Kharadiya Seervi. Your hard work will enhance the dignity of the Seervi position, and the economic condition of the kingdom will strengthen through the fruits of your labor.” Kanhardhev also issued another order stating that if any Kharadiya Rajput is unable to engage in physical labor involved in farming, they should be appointed as the manager of your agricultural land. Kanhardhev explained the meaning of the word “Seervi” and its reference, saying:
“Bhooswami Ri Or Soo, Parbandhak Jo Hoy | Dekho Shabd Seervah, Shabd Kosh Mein Joy ||”
“Look at the word Seervah, which means the overseer or manager In the lexicon, the word Seervah is found.”
Note: The above translation captures the essence of the message, but it may not be a direct word-to-word translation.
In the colloquial language, Seervah is called Seervi. Kanhardhev continued by saying, “Your request has been accepted. Jogmaya, now unite with Bhala.” The Kharadiya Seervi’s cheered for Kanhardhev. Savant Singh respectfully addressed the king and requested, “Maharaj, I have been living with these Rajput’s in Kharai Khabar for a long time. We are all Rajput brothers. I also want to engage in agricultural business like these Rajput brothers. Kindly bestow upon me the position of Seervi as well.” Upon hearing these words from his son-in-law, the king became pleased and bestowed upon Savant Singh the title of “Seervi Kharadiya.”
From the mouth of Kanhardhev – Today is Vaisakha Shukla Dwitiya of the year Vikram Samvat 1365. This auspicious day is celebrated as “Seervi Jayanti” for you. You and this assembly will observe this day according to the prescribed rituals and procedures. Following the orders of the leader, a joint Hala (a ceremonial plough) was arranged. In the presence of Jaanjande Gehlot and Savant Singh Panwar (Paramar), the Kharadiya Seervi’s, we remembered Jog Maya, Hanuman, Ashapuri Devi, and all the deities. We also worshiped Goddess Annapurna, praying for peace, prosperity, and unity among the people of the country and the Kharadiya Seervi’s. The Hala puja was performed according to the prescribed rituals, with the hope that the hand of the chief Jaanjande Gehlot would touch the Hala, and the festival of “Seervi Jayanti” would commence with the blessings of Lord Ganesh.
As per the information mentioned in “Kshatriya Rajvansh” page 194, it is known that Samant Singh, upon witnessing the growing power of Alauddin Khilji, bestowed the kingdom of Jalore upon his son Kanhardhev. Kanhardhev ruled the Jalore dynasty from Vikram Samvat 1350-1368. In Vikram Samvat 1355, Muslim forces faced defeat in their encounter with Kanhardhev’s invasion and were forced to retreat. Later, in Vikram Samvat 1362, the emperor dispatched an army under the leadership of Sultan-ul-Mulk to Jalore. However, the Muslim army leader assured Raja Kanhardhev of a peaceful settlement and sent him back to Delhi with due respect.
According to the book “Jalore Fort’s Jauhar,” written by Harishankar, it is mentioned that the commander-in-chief of the Delhi Sultanate, Multani, was not only a skilled military general but also a proficient debater and scholar. He had an old acquaintance and friendship with the former Maharaja Samantsingh of Jalore. One day, during the religious festivals and engagements of both sides, a meeting was arranged between the two “elders” with the permission of Maharaja Samantsingh, and it took place near the border of the Jalore kingdom. Both parties were delighted to meet each other. They expressed their desire to maintain peace and harmony, based on the memories of the past and the current situation. Maharaja Samantsingh wanted peace, and his old companion, who had come as an intelligent and wise commander, instilled trust that the dignity and integrity of Jalore would not be compromised in any way. Thus, Raval Kanhardhev had to comply with his father’s advice. Diplomats were appointed to facilitate communication and negotiation between Sipahsalar Multani and the ruler of Jalore, Raval Kanhardhev. In this dialogue, a promise was made to accord appropriate honor to Raval Kanhardhev at the court of the Delhi Sultan. Both parties agreed not to engage in any harm, tribute, or transaction, and the Jalore-Delhi treaty was accepted in a dignified manner to ensure future peace.
According to “The Origin and Development of the Seervi Samaj (Community),” it is written in Hindu scriptures that in times of adversity, a Kshatriya can adopt the occupation of the Vaishya varna. Therefore, the Seervi Samaj (Community) primarily engaged in agriculture. Due to this reason, King Kanhardhev granted permission for the Khari Khabar region’s Rajput farmers, known as the Khadariya Rajput’s, to settle in his kingdom for agricultural purposes. He issued a permanent written order, in the form of a copper plate, allowing them to reside in his kingdom and allocating them 9/24th share of the produce to be contributed to the royal treasury. These Rajput’s belonged to the 24 gotras and migrated from the Khari Khabar region in Gujarat. Hence, they came to be known as Khadariya Seervi’s.
Based on the above information, it can be inferred that during the battle in Vikram Samvat 1355, Kanharddev’s victory over Allaudin Khilji’s army, and the peace treaty with Allaudin Khilji in Vikram Samvat 1362, demonstrate that during the era of monarchy, Kanharddev placed more trust in the treaty with Allaudin Khilji than in military strength, focusing more on his economic situation. It is during this time that the written order (Tamra-patra) was issued in Vikram Samvat 1365, allowing the Khadariya Rajput’s to engage in agriculture and cooperate with the Seervi Samaj (Community). It indicates that agriculture and mutual cooperation in farming played a significant role. As a result, the Khadariya Rajput’s started being referred to as Khadariya Seervi’s, and our ancestors accepted the name “Seervi Khadariya” for our Seervi Samaj (Community).
According to the accounts of the society’s elders, including Raav-Bhaat Bansilalji, Raanaramji Bhairavat, and Gaanv Leta Meenon’s Raav Daulatramji, the ancestors of the society (Khadariya Rajputs) settled in the hilly regions around Jalore (Jabalpur), Ahore, and Sirohi, as well as in some areas of present-day Pali district. This happened before the society, known as Seervi (Kshatriya) Samaj Khadariya, was established in Vikram Samvat 1365. They established 24 settlements, which are as follows:
- Rathore (Bitoo Dwitiya)
- Parihar (Naacholi)
- Panwaar (Maanpura)
- Chauhan (Bituda)
- Solanki (Ukarla)
- Gehlot (Kurjiya)
- Lacheta (Leta)
- Sepata (Hingola)
- Kaag (Kukshi/Kaagwa)
- Bhayal (Khejdiya)
- Parihaariya (Jogani)
- Devda (Aaka Thumbha)
- Aaglecha (Aakon Ra Padarla)
- Bhumbhadiya (Bagoda)
- Choyal (Padarla)
- Haambad (Jaitpura)
- Saincha (Kerala Pratham)
- Sonagara (Samatipura)
- Sindada (Sodara)
- Khandala (Mandavala)
- Barfa (Gokhdu)
- Mogarecha (Kerala Dvitiya)
- Siyaal (Badli)
- Mulewa (Mulewa)
These settlements were established by the Khadariya Rajput’s in the mentioned regions.
According to “Kshatriya Rajvansh” page 195, Kanharddev’s son Viramdev resided in the Delhi court. While staying there, he fell in love with a princess named Firoz. However, due to religious differences, their marriage couldn’t take place, and Viramdev returned to Jalore. Inspired by various reasons such as the possibility of Jalore becoming an obstacle in Alauddin’s southern conquest, Viramdev made plans to attack Jalore. In his path lay the strong fort of Sivana, which was under the authority of Satalade Chauhan. Satalade was also a brave warrior and was fiercely protecting the independence of Sivana. He didn’t want to allow the Khilji army to pass through without a fight.
Satalade confronted the Muslim army and thwarted their many attempts. The Muslim army remained stationed there for several months, but they couldn’t achieve victory. Their attempts to breach the fort through staircases were unsuccessful due to the defensive mechanisms of the Rajput’s. They even tried to scale the high towers with the help of grappling hooks but were unsuccessful. Then, with the help of traitor Bhavale, they contaminated the fort’s water reservoirs with cow’s blood. The food supplies ran out, and at that point, the brave warriors observed the Jauhar ritual and, with a smile on their faces, sacrificed their lives outside the fort. Finally, the Muslim army gained control of the fort.
Sultan Alauddin returned to Delhi, but his army, under the leadership of Kamaluddin, continued their advance towards Jalore. Meanwhile, Kanharddev made preparations. He sent Maldev to Badi and Viramdev to Bhadrjun. The Muslim army besieged the fort of Jalore. Despite the passage of many days, they couldn’t capture the fort. At that point, a traitor named Bika was enticed by the desire for power and joined the enemy’s side, showing them a way to breach the fort. When Bika’s wife learned of his treachery, she killed him during the night and informed Kanharddev about it.
However, the enemy had already infiltrated the fort. To defend the fort, warriors like Kandhai, Jaita Devda, Lunakarn, Arjun, and others fought valiantly against the enemies. Kanharddev also fought like a true Rajput and displayed great valor. Viramdev, the son of Kanharddev, continued fighting the enemy with the remaining strength, but due to being surrounded by the enemy, he couldn’t sustain the battle for a long time. Eventually, he stabbed himself with a dagger and ended his life. The brave women observed the Jauhar ritual. Viramdev’s head was taken to Delhi, and it was given to the princess. She prepared herself to become a Sati and finally ended her life by jumping into the Yamuna river. In this way, Alauddin Khilji’s reign was established over Jalore in the year 1368 according to the Vikrami calendar.
Doha of Rao Banshilalji –
shaahajaadee hat jeliyo, jalee soneengara sang |
mariyo pan neeviyon nahin, rang soneengara rang ||
Translation : The princess left, burning with Soneengaar (Viramdev), She died, but her color remained like that of Soneengaar (Love for Viramdev).
When Allaudin Khilji gained control over the Jalore fort, the officials started collecting half of the produce as Jizya Tax (Shravanu cultivation) instead of the ninth share from the Hindu population and farmers. The excessive levies, disregard for the people, working without providing wages to the laborers, and increasing atrocities were also attributed to the fact that Princess Firoza loved Viramdev. However, due to the religious differences, Viramdev was not ready for marriage.
The emperor was tormented by the suicide of his daughter Firoza, who had taken her own life due to her lover’s demise. The emperor realized that the Rajput’s embraced death with a smile but never surrendered. They were valiant warriors who would do anything for their honor, pride, and self-esteem. They could snatch away my kingdom from me in the future. In an attempt to eliminate the Rajput lineage, the emperor resorted to dishonoring Rajput women, forcing the brave warriors to convert, and subjecting Hindus to forced conversions. In the face of such atrocities, the Rajput’s (Kshatriyas) were torn apart.
Saraneshwar Mahadev Temple –
According to the records of Raj-Bhat Bansilalji, Rana Ramji Bhairavat, and Rav Daulatramji Meena of Gaon Leta Meena, the main and secure place for the settlement of Khariya Rajputs, as mentioned in the social register, was considered to be Saraneshwar Mahadev Temple.
The fourteen chiefs – Parihars, Panwars (Paramaras), Solankis, Chauhans, Septa, Lacheta, Kag, Bhayal, Parihariya, Gahlot, Devda, Rathor, Aglecha, Bhumadhada, belong to the Khariya Rajputs. They sought refuge in Saraneshwar Mahadev to escape the Muslim army.
As per the information received from the esteemed Sirohi Darbar, Sahab Keshar Vilas Shri Raghuvir Singhji Devda, in the year 1298 Vikram Samvat (1355 CE) on the day of Diwali, the consecration of Saraneshwar Mahadev Temple took place. In ancient times, some Rajput’s used to reside there secretly as temple priests and perform worship of Lord Mahadev. It is also mentioned that the Rabari community played a significant role. They had secretly thrown stones at the Muslim soldiers and aided the victory of the king. Since then, on the day of Dev Jhulani Ekadashi, the Rabaris have the complete authority to organize the grand fair at Saraneshwar Mahadev Temple for one day.
According to the “Kharadiya Seerviyon ka Itihas” (History of the Kharadiya Rajput’s), it is mentioned that in the Vikram Samvat 1355 (1298 CE), the Kharadiya Rajput’s left Koyalpur and migrated to Jalore. From the above information, it is evident that there is a special connection between the Kharadiya Seerviyos and Saraneshwar Mahadev Temple. According to the records of the Bhat, it is known that our society’s banderus (priests) have a connection with the establishment of the Shivalinga at Saraneshwar. Over time, the number of Kharadiya Rajput’s gradually increased at the temple, displaying deep devotion and unwavering faith in Lord Mahadev. One day, the Lord became pleased with their devotion.
As per the mentioned historical records, the fourteen chiefs (Kharadiya Rajput’s) appealed for protection from Mahadev. They said, “O Mahadev, the lord of lords, protect us from the asuras and the irreligious. We are all your descendants and followers of the eternal dharma. We do not want to abandon our religion. The emperor wants to forcefully convert us to Islam, but we do not want to become Muslims. Therefore, we have taken refuge in you. Lord, protect us!” As per the records of the Raj-Bhats, society was favored and blessed by Lord Mahadev. The Kharadiya Seerviyos underwent transformations in their appearance, speech, and societal structure under the divine grace of Mahadev.
According to the records of the Raj-Bhats, around Vikram Samvat 1362-1368 (1305-1311 CE), society abandoned the fascination with weaponry, brought their families, and settled in Saraneshwar, which is located approximately three kilometers away from Sirohi. They started their agricultural occupation there. When the emperor came to know about this and questioned them, they replied that they all worship Shiva and engage in farming. The Raj-Bhats also state that this led to the identification of the Seervi Samaj (Community) with Shiva worship, and subsequently, the term “Seervi” came into use.
According to the genealogists, folk traditions, and poet Bagasoo-
The Seervi’s remained the main thread bearers in Sirohi. During the Sultanate period, there was a continuous series of temple destructions by Muslim rulers. At that time, the “Seervi’s” collaborated with the Rajput army to protect the Kali Shiva Linga and the deity at Saraneshwar from the Muslim forces. In this process, the brave warriors of the Seervi Samaj (Community) sacrificed their lives. The “Kivadanti” states that the ancient name of Sirohi was “Devnagari.” Historical scriptures of Sirohi still testify that Sirohi was called “Devnagari.” The Seervis saved Sirohi and gave it the name “Sirohi,” signifying their act of protecting the Lord Shiva. Therefore, the name “Sirohi” came into existence, which has synonyms such as “Sirohi,” “Talwar,” “Seervi,” “Devnagari,” and so on.
When the soldiers of the emperor became suspicious of the Seervi’s who were engaged in agriculture near Saraneshwar, they attacked the farmers on the emperor’s orders. History books state that Muslim rulers held such beliefs. Those who raised their voices against oppression were given an order to either fight or convert to Islam. Rejecting both of these options, the society stopped their carts, prepared food, and settled near the Luni River.
Some members of society, upon reaching the river, began preparations to rest, cook food, and many brothers thought that they would only find food after crossing the river. The Seervis of Jhanwa were already settled on the south bank of the river, and the Seervi Kharadiyas crossed the river and settled on the northern bank. According to the Bhat’s accounts, it is mentioned that a caravan of around 150 carts along with camels, horses, and other means of transportation is described. It was difficult for a large number of people in the community to live in one village. Therefore, they migrated from the northern side of the Luni River and settled in different locations wherever they found convenience. According to the “Seervion ka Itihas” (History of the Seervi’s), during the time of Raja Riddmal of Marwar, some brothers lived in other states apart from Jalore.
According to the records of Raav Bansilalji (Kekinda), a member of the Seervi Lacheta Gotra, the community left Saraneshwar in the year 1381. Some brothers from the Khariya Seervi Samaj (Community) reached Nadol, while others settled in villages like Gundoj, Bilara, Sojat, and others (I regret not being able to mention the names of all the villages).
The Khariya Seervi’s organized their first conference and marriage festival in Gundoj. During the conference, general rules for the functioning of the community and a review of the gotras were discussed. Descriptions of 36 gotras, including gotras, upagotras, and nak gotras, can be found in the records.
On the day of Vaisakha Shukla Teej in the Vikram Samvat calendar, a significant event was organized to commemorate the 36 gotras of the community. It involved performing the collective marriage ceremony for the community’s brides. On the same day, during the wedding festival, Kuroji Pavar performed a mausar (yajna) following his father Sawantji. Kuroji represented the deity Mahadev, and under his leadership, the community performed the yajna in the name of Mahadev during the reign of Rao Chundoji. The event included invitations extended to the Jat, Jhanwa, Kalbi, Peetal, Khetighar Kumhar, Sarava, and all other communities.
According to the records of Seervi Lacheta Gautra, the sons of Deepaji Lacheta, Nagoji and Magaji, migrated from Saraneshwar to Nadol. From Nadol, they further moved to Gundoj in Vikram Samvat 1507. From Gundoj, Nagoji’s son Motaji, along with the brides of the six Seervi Gautras, settled in Bera (Dheemda) after receiving land from Thakur Sahab Govind Singhji Rawat Sahab Satlaji Rathore.
In Vikram Samvat 1537, during the reign of Raja Sujaji, Sonaji, son of Motaji Lacheta, and Keraji, son of Sonaji, resided in Bislapur (near Palasni). Keraji Lacheta attained martyrdom in a Mino (Meena) attack on the village of Bislapur, along with an attack on cows. The current village of Palasni has a Chidiyanath Ji ashram (Dhuna) in memory of Keraji Lacheta, and a platform was built in his honor. It is located to the south of the present-day Bislapur village.
In Sojat, the Khariya Seervi Samaj (Community) installed a statue of Hanuman Ji at Pavaata Bera, which is still located near the Sojat City bus stand. Even today, the Khariya Seervi’s of 49 Gautras, including Nak, perform the worship and rituals of Hanuman Ji in Sojat, generation after generation.
According to some researchers, our community, known as Khariya Seervi, was involved in agriculture alongside the Kalbi and Jhanwa communities in Seer. This practice of agriculture dates back to around Vikram Samvat 808 when the community was known as Seervi. However, it is not appropriate to state that the Seervi Khariya community had matrimonial relations with the Jhanwa community, as their historical activities, behaviors, and traditions indicate a different origin. They left their previous work and started agriculture as a profession around the 8th century.
According to the report “Mardumshumari Rajmarwar 1891 AD, 3rd edition, page 99” written by Rai Bahadur Munshi Hardayal Singh, the Jhanwa community traces their lineage back to the disciples of the sage Goram Rishi, particularly Vijaypal, who performed penance on the mountains of Mount Abu. Vijaypal had two disciples, Vijaypal and Vijay Rishi, who followed the guru’s command and went on a pilgrimage. Upon their return, they settled in Pali, where a Brahmin named Somji used to offer them milk. Somji had two daughters named Phulvanti and Jasoda. One day, when Somji was away, the daughters mixed rice into the milk, even though they were not supposed to eat grain. This angered them, and they cursed the girls, who were caught by surprise. When Somji returned, he saw what had happened and cast his gaze upon the girls. While Vijay Rishi did not accept the incident, Vijaypal married Jasoda. As the guru was angry and did not allow Vijaypal to stay in his ashram, Vijaypal built a hut in Abu and resided there. When it was time for Jasoda to give birth, she was unable to deliver the child. Helpless, Vijaypal went to his guru and sought his guidance. The guru said, “Go, Jano, it’s your child.” Thus, the child was named Jano ji. Jano ji, after growing up, started looting with the Bhil tribe. In this manner, he established a city named Janpur under Abu. There, he had twelve sons: Govind, Giridhar, Uka, Agara, Asa, Lola, Likhami Das, Alamasi, Kalu, Bhan, Bhaddar, and Alan. The lineage of these twelve sons is known as Pant, and their profession was to raid and loot. One day, when the Palivalas captured forty-four unmarried girls from Pali, the girls had already married the Janavas before the Palivalas arrived. The Palivalas, who were helpless by then, told Janoji that if they were to accept these girls, Janoji would have to follow two conditions: the offspring of these girls would have to consume milk only and abstain from eating meat. Janoji agreed, and these two conditions have been followed by the community to this day. The names of the twenty-four branches of this lineage are as follows:
- One name is unknown.
Pital and Kalbi:
According to the report “Mardumshumari Rajmarwar 1891 AD, 3rd edition, page 107” written by Rai Bahadur Munshi Hardayal Singh, Pital and Kalbi are considered to be the same community. The name Kalbi is older, while some people from the community started residing in Pali, leading to the name Pital. These people primarily engage in agriculture and do not pursue any other profession. They are known for their proficiency in farming. The origin of the name Kalbi is derived from the Persian word “Kalbe,” which has a meaning related to plowing. Considering the context of names being associated with professions during the Muslim era, it is not inappropriate.
The history of the Kalbi community and the stories of their bards indicate that this community was born out of the union between Rajput’s and Brahmins. The exact period of their origin is not well known but is estimated to be around a thousand years ago when many Rajput’s, due to pressure from Muslims, separated from their traditional weapons and established themselves as a separate community or merged with other communities. Some Rajput’s may have migrated to Gujarat, where they may have married women from the Nagar Brahmin community. Those women became the ancestors of the Kalbi community. The women of the Kalbi community, to this day, maintain certain dietary restrictions and separate utensils. They do not consume meat or alcohol. This practice may be a remnant of the old customs followed by those Brahmin women who married into the Kalbi community.
The writer believes that the establishment of the Kalbi community took place between the 12th and 13th centuries during the Vikrami Samvat. According to their bards, some of them moved from Bhinmal to Gujarat and then came to Sanchor. From Sanchor, they migrated to various other regions of Marwar, including Pachbhadra in 1581 AD and Siwana in 1755 AD. The Khap or original branches and gotras of the community include Parmar, Chauhan, Solanki, and Goyal, which they refer to as “Nakh.” The subdivisions of these “Nakh” have further branched out into various clans, such as Boka, Turk, Silana, Malvi, Kukal, Pan, Kag, Tatiya, Akodiya, Harni for Parmar Nakh, Dhuni, Od, Kurad, Bhand for Chauhan Nakh, and many others. Solanki and Goyal do not have specific subdivisions. The specific names associated with these subdivisions are not known, including Fak, Kathotaraya, Kala, Muji, Bagda, Koya, and Bichhu.
Kalbi Community – According to the historical records (Anjana) of the Kalbi community, they have approximately 232 gotras or sub-clans, including their respective khaps or original branches. Here is a list of some of the gotras along with their details:
- Chawda – Ajgal, Ant, Aamta, Bala, Sayar, Sundal, Sankat
- Goyal – Apalona, Kishor, Kondali, Nadikat, Pilas, Bagla, Bhungar
- Parihar – Alvona, Gagoda, Dha, Teetariya, Pawa, Bahera, Mudak, Lohay, Hadmata, Hadiya
- Sisodiya – Aidi, Uvda, Ujala, Kurund, Goda, Tandhar, Dekliya, Hun
- Rathore – Avda, Dangi, Dondaliya, Boombi, Bhuriya
- Chauhan – Akodiya, Od, Udra, Karad, Kathotariya, Koyla, Khinchi, Gadar, Gudal V.C., Sompival, Harni
- Jhala – Ubad, Gudal, Ghoi, Judal, Panchatarod Boobakiya
- Solanki – Karvad, Kahawa, Bhutadia, Ratda, Logarad, Singal, Sundal, Seda, Hola
- Kachhwaha – Kuhant, Kondala, Dholiya, Hadua
- Yadav – Kaner, Jadmala, Teturva, Nav, Bhatiya, Bhilol, Bhunsiya, Munji, Mehar, Valla
- Parmar – Kala, Kak, Kukal, Kuva, Kukan, Kunkana, Kharasan, Khagda, Gaya, Tontiya, Dodia, Tarkh, Turgar, Dhuania, Paviya, Pakaria, Poon, Phag, Bag, Bahiya, Banka, Boya, Bhajwad, Bhand, Malvi, Vagda, Saravag, Saath, Silona, Sih
- Tunwar – Kumpaliya, Gohit, Tod, Tungda, Badwal, Bhainsa, Sakariya
- Jethwa – Jagpal, Jeebla, Jompaliya, Navi, Velakat
- Makvana – Puliya, Bhalol, Maruvalay, Maval, Mujal
- And others, known by various names and some by Nakh (subdivisions).
Please note that these are some of the gotras and sub-clans of the Kalbi community as mentioned in the historical records.
According to the information provided by the writer, there is no social relationship between the Khadriya community and any specific gotra mentioned above. The writer states that the Khadriya Rajput’s, who were engaged in agriculture and farming, established family relations with both communities. According to the accounts of the Raw-Bhats (historians), during the reign of Raja Kanhardev, the Khadriya Rajput’s engaged in farming in the Khadriya region, which eventually led to the community being called Khadriya. Within the Khadriya community, marriages are conducted within 49 specific gotras, excluding the gotras of the bride’s and groom’s parents.
The prevalence of the custom of wearing a veil (ghunghat) and conducting wedding ceremonies during the night can be attributed to the influence of Muslim rulers. In ancient times, marriage ceremonies were conducted during the presence of the sun. This tradition has been continued, and even today, the final rites of a deceased individual are performed in the light of the sun.
The Khadriya community upholds certain rituals, customs, and social arrangements that are derived from the Rajput traditions. Some of the old religious practices are still followed as part of their social customs and traditions. During the auspicious wedding ceremony (Panigrahan), the bride is draped in a Kholjholiya, which is a white cloth with turmeric applied. Similar to Rajput households, Rajput women still cover their heads with a white cloth when leaving their homes, and they give priority to their paternal lineage (Pitrukul) in their in-laws’ house. Respecting Brahmins and adhering to the principle of “one society, one rule,” the Khadriya community maintains a social system where decisions, whether good or bad, are resolved within the community without wasting time in courts. Disputing parties can seek resolution through the understanding and mediation of fellow community members, similar to the ancient Panchayat system.
Concluding the information provided.
Book: Seervi (Kshatriya) Samaj Khadriya Ka Itihaas and Baanderu Vaani
Author and Publisher: Seervi Jasaram Lacheta (Rampura Kalan), Rampuram, Chennai, India (Contact: +91 9444759307)
Online Publication: Seervi Dinesh Kaag, Bali, Rajasthan, India
Chapter 1: History of (Kshatriya) Seervi Samaj Khadriya
Note: The above information has been taken from the book “Seervi (Kshatriya) Samaj Khadriya Ka Itihaas” and “Baanderu Vaani.” If you have any suggestions or information, you can contact us without hesitation.